The topics in this theme describe the condition of our land and its ability to provide ecosystem services and suitable habitat for native species and ecosystems.

Land Theme and Soil Condition Topic (Landscape) icon

Land overview

For an overview of this theme, including Aboriginal perspectives click on the heading.

Soil Condition topic icon

Soil Condition

Soil condition and productivity are declining across NSW due to increasing acidification and the continuing decline of soil organic carbon in agricultural soils from the intensification of land use

Native vegetation topic (Forest trees) icon

Native Vegetation

Following the Black Summer bushfires it is estimated 31% of the ecological carrying capacity of native vegetation in NSW remains, compared to pre-European settlement.

Protected Areas and Conservation Topic (Bushwalkers in nature) icon

Protected Areas and Conservation

The NSW terrestrial reserve system covers about 7.59 million hectares or approximately 9.6% of the state.



The 2019–20 Black Summer fire season was the most severe ever recorded in NSW, and as the climate warms and dries such fire patterns are likely to become more frequent.