This report is structured around six environmental themes: Drivers, Human Settlement, Climate and Air, Land, Biodiversity, Water and Marine. Each theme is divided into specific topics with status indicators and further information.


The key drivers of human induced change to the environment are the economy and a growing population

The topics in this theme describe the key drivers of human caused change in the environment - population growth and economic trends. Growth in population is the main driver that is presenting challenges to maintain the condition of the environment.

Human Settlement

The human and urban environment is our most heavily modified and intensively used environment and presents specific challenges in the use of resources and services and the management of pollution and waste

The topics in this theme cover issues that arise in ensuring a clean and healthy environment for the community of NSW and to enhance its living conditions and lifestyle.

Climate and Air

The emissions that we release into the atmosphere can affect the quality of the air we breathe or may build up in the atmosphere leading to climate change

The topics in this theme describe air quality in NSW and the effects of carbon emissions on our climate, as well as how climate change already affects, or will affect, all aspects of our environment.


How our land is used and managed is the main determinant of its condition and the health of native species and ecosystems

The topics in this theme describe the condition of our land and its ability to provide ecosystem services and suitable habitat for native species and ecosystems.


The changes that have occurred to our natural environment affect the richness and diversity of the species and ecosystems found in NSW and their ability to survive into the future

The topics in this theme describe how the native species and ecosystems of NSW are faring presently and the effects of introduced species.


Water and Marine

Water is a valuable resource and the challenge is to find an appropriate balance between extraction of water for human uses, while retaining sufficient water to maintain aquatic ecosystems in a healthy condition

The topics in this theme describe how water resources are used in NSW and the condition of freshwater and marine ecosystems.