The topics in this theme cover issues that arise in ensuring a clean and healthy environment for the community of NSW and to enhance its living conditions and lifestyle.

Human Settlement Theme (Houses) icon

Human Settlement overview

For an overview of this theme, including Aboriginal perspectives click on the heading.

Energy Topic (Electricity meter) icon

Energy Consumption

Energy consumption decreased by 2% from 1,169 to 1,142 petajoules (PJ) between 2010 and 2019 and per capita consumption decreased by 3.2% between 2017–19.

Transport Topic (Train) icon


The demand for transport has increased as the population grows.

Tap with a water drip infographic icon

Urban Water Supply

Climate change and more intense droughts are increasing risks to the water security of NSW cities and towns.

Waste and recycling (Bin) icon

Waste and Recycling

Since 2015–16, the total amount of waste generated increased by 17% and construction and demolition (C&D) waste accounts for the most waste generated.

Contaminated sites icon title removed

Contaminated Sites

Between 2018–20, the number of notified and regulated contaminated sites steadily increased. This was matched by an increase in the number of remediated sites.